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Patrick Minford, Sakshi Gupta, Vo P.M. Le, Vidya Mahambare and Yongdeng Xu

6.  Manufacturing The importance of the manufacturing industry across the world has increased since the financial crisis of 2008. Manufacturing is seen as a prime job- reating sector and for this reason one might expect that the c protection of manufactured goods in the EU and the rest of the world will begin to gain importance as countries make an effort to boost the domestic manufacturing sector. Certain labour-ntensive sectors such as textiles i already continue to be relatively highly protected by both tariff and non- tariff barriers globally. This chapter

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George Norman and Darlene C. Chisholm

A manufacturing process by which the producer can produce a wide range of customized products at little or no cost penalty.

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Peter V. Hall

4.  Manufacturing logistics Peter V. Hall INTRODUCTION Manufacturing is now and has always been intimately bound up with transportation to move finished goods to market, to obtain raw materials and to integrate different parts of the production process. As Alfred Marshall (1890) and countless economic geographers who followed him have observed, manufacturing is more efficient and dynamic when it occurs at greater productive scale and in localized clusters. For precisely this reason, resources, raw materials, energy, parts and other inputs have to be brought to

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UNIDO

Section 1.1 THE MANUFACTURING SECTOR

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John Bessant

32. Innovation and Manufacturing Strategy John Bessan! Int.-oduction One of the key managerial capabilities required in the successful innovating fmn is the ability to align the various decisions and actions laken about technological changes so that they support the broader objectives of the business. Thus new products need to be developed in response to a clear wlderstanding of market needs, technological opportunities and internal technological capabilities; as Johne and Snelson (1988) point out, successful product innovation is not a matter of luck bill of

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Peter Groves

A classic definition of patentable subject-matter, originally found in Section 6 of the Statute of Monopolies of 1623, which referred to ‘letters patent … hereafter to be made for the sole working or making of any manner of new manufacture’. In the NRDC case, the Australian High Court adopted a particularly extensive interpretation of the expression. It still features in some patent laws in the Commonwealth, though not in the UK.

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Sally Weller

2.  Manufacturing and labor Sally Weller INTRODUCTION Manufacturing is an important source of employment in both advanced and developing economies. In 2010, according to the International Labour Organization (ILO), manufacturing industries employed in excess of 670 million people worldwide and accounted directly for 26 percent of men’s and 16 percent of women’s jobs (ILO, 2012). In the United States, although manufacturing industries shed about four million jobs in the ten years 1998–2008, they still employed over 12 million people in 2012 and accounted for 9

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United Nations Industrial Development Organization,

APPENDIX III DEFINITION AND CLASSIFICATION BY END-USE AND R&D INTENSITY OF TRADE IN MANUFACTURES End-use Mainly Mainly consumer Research intensity capital goods and consulller durables Other lIIanufactures Low sITe code Mainly supp 1; es and Oeser; pt ; on non-Ourables interlllediates Medium High 01 02 032 0.422 Meat and meat preparat ions , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , Dairy products and eggs Fish preparations Rice, glazed or pol ished 0'6 0<7 0'8 052 053 055 06 0713 0722 0723 Meal and flour of Wheat or of lleslin Meal and flour of

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Lucio Cassia

5. Electronics Manufacturing Services ELECTRONICS MANUFACTURING AND OUTSOURCING During the early diffusion of electronic technologies, most of the supply chain activity, from design to after-sales support, was carried out almost entirely within companies, with no activity being outsourced. The business model was highly integrated vertically and the internal organization was in charge of the planning, construction and testing of the final product, managing both returns and maintenance servicing. The feasibility and the actual development of every electronic

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Wolfgang Ruppert

2. Business Survey in Manufacturing Wolfgang Ruppert 2.1 THE PROGRAMME OF QUESTIONS Designing the programme of questions for the Ifo Business Survey calls for optimisation under three headings: trade cycle observation, observation of markets and effort involved in tabulating and analysing the results. Since there are a large number of topics which are promising from both the enterprises' and the Institute's point of view, the decision was taken to divide up the programme of questions into two sections: standard and supplementary questions. The standard