5 Intellectual property Miranda Forsyth INTRODUCTION Intellectual property rights (IPRs) are rights over intangible products of the human mind, such as designs, stories, creations, inventions, processes and knowledge. They are commonly classified into copyright, patent, trademark, designs, geographical indications of origin and an increasingly diverse array of other subject matter.1 Intellectual property today is linked to almost every sphere of life and the regulation of intellectual property rights is being woven in ever-tightening strands across the globe at
7 Property Mark Busse In colloquial English, ‘property’ refers to things that belong to a person or group. One thinks of things like land, houses, cars and paintings, and more recently, perhaps, of songs, software or artistic designs. Things, and the relationship between things and the people who own them, comprise the two parts of dictionary definitions of property as owning, being owned and things that are owned. While such usage emphasises property as objects or things, anthropologists and legal scholars generally understand property in terms of social
CHAPTER 07 21/2/05 8:54 AM Page 4 7 Property Chris Hann One key element in the anthropologist’s approach to property (as to other key concepts) is to ‘relativise’, to question whether the understanding that has emerged in our intellectual traditions can provide an adequate base for understanding others. The English term ‘property’ is closely tied to the history of enclosures and the emergence of capitalism. It may be misleading to conceive the complex, non-exclusive patterns of access and use characteristic of precapitalist land tenure in terms of property
Thomas J. Miceli
15 Property Thomas J. Miceli Introduction The concept of property is fundamental to both law and economics. The law deﬁnes and protects the bundle of rights that constitute property, thereby creating the legal framework within which resource allocation and wealth distribution take place. The economic approach to property law emphasizes its role in promoting an efﬁcient allocation of resources. Accomplishing this goal generally involves creation and protection of individual rights in property so as to encourage exchange and investment, though, in some cases
Thomas J. Miceli
~ ~~ ~ 9 Property Thomas J. Miceli Introduction The concept of property is fundamental to both law and economics. The law defines and protects the bundle of rights that constitute property, thereby creating the legal framework within which resource allocation and wealth distribution take place. The economic approach to property law emphasizes its role in promoting an efficient allocation of resources. Accomplishing this goal generally involves creation and protection of individual rights in property so as to encourage exchange and investment, though, in some
A term employed in civil law jurisdictions, equivalent to intangible property and therefore including many intellectual property rights.
A tax based on the value of property, though it is often limited to certain types of property such as land and buildings. In some countries it is an important source of local government ﬁnance . See also Proposition 13 . Further reading Anderson , N.B. ( 2006 ), ‘ Property tax limitations: an interpretive review ’, National
George Norman and Darlene C. Chisholm
Ownership or exclusive rights to use an asset such as a good or service. Others must pay you if they wish to use the asset. An individual has property rights in their time, the car that they own or the house that they own. The individual does not have property rights in a public highway, even if the highway is paid for and maintained by tax revenues.
Property, Power and Market Economies
Law’s Regulatory Relevance? 2. Criminalising property Whether something will be regarded as property is nothing more, and nothing less, than a conclusion of law. 87 Introduction Instructed by market mechanisms, the law currently ensures exclusive ownership, protects possession of property and controls pricing. In this way, property commodification through law displaces the societal value of property with a monetary value, allowing property to be dislocated, alienated and transacted as part of the market economy. In the process, law