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Salman MA Salman

12. The human right to water and sanitation: challenges and opportunities Salman MA Salman INTRODUCTION Water is an essential and indispensable element for life. It is a finite resource without an alternative, and upon which there is total dependence for survival. Social and economic development is closely tied to water, and poverty is prevalent mostly in areas that face water shortage. Water-related diseases, caused by unsafe drinking water and the absence of proper sanitation facilities, are among the leading causes of death in the developing world. The

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Juan Pablo Bohoslavsky, Liber Martin and Juan Justo

JOBNAME: Tan PAGE: 1 SESS: 3 OUTPUT: Fri Jul 28 09:13:54 2017 5. BITs, state regulation and business-related human rights violations in water and sanitation services Juan Pablo Bohoslavsky, Liber Martin and Juan Justo* INTRODUCTION This chapter explores the Bilateral Investment Treaties (BITs) implications of the state’s duty to protect the human right to water and sanitation (HRWS) from violations caused by private companies. Although it does not address the violations perpetrated directly by states by providing either inadequate public services or no services

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Pedi Obani and Joyeeta Gupta

12.  Human security and access to water, sanitation, and hygiene: exploring the drivers and nexus Pedi Obani and Joyeeta Gupta 1.  INTRODUCTION The concept of human security was introduced by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP, 1994). It can be broadly interpreted to link economic, social, political, environmental, and humanitarian factors to human survival, dignity, and well-­being (UNDP, 1994); narrowly focused on human survival and protection against violence (McRae & Hubert, 2001); or interpreted to fall between the broad and narrow conceptions

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Paul Howard

7. Towards universal sanitation: the Cambodian case Paul Howard Introduction The statistics related to inadequate sanitation globally are sobering. It is estimated that around 2.6 billion people on the planet do not have access to an improved sanitation facility (WSSCC 2012a). Of those 2.6 billion people, around 70 per cent live in rural areas and 1 billion still openly defecate (WSSCC 2012a). At the conclusion of the Water Week conference in Stockholm in August 2011, the Chair of UN Water stated United Nations (UN) Water’s wish to set an explicit target of

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Bas van Vliet

13. The sustainable transformation of sanitation Bas van Vliet INTRODUCTION Probably the most sensible and most pressing environmental problem in Western cities of the nineteenth century was the accumulation and inappropriate handling of human waste. Since the discovery of the relationship between the lack of sanitation on the one hand and epidemic diseases like cholera on the other, networks of drinking water supply and sewage systems have been rolled out in almost all urban centres of the world. Water works that were constructed during the last century largely

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Susana Mourato

4. Valuing improvements to sanitation in Malaysia Susana Mourato This chapter reports on the results of an economic valuation study to assess household demand for improved drinking water and sanitation systems in Malacca, carried out as part of DANCED/EPU’s Institutional Strengthening and Capacity Building project. 1 INTRODUCTION Billions of dollars are invested every year in water and sanitation projects in urban and rural areas of developing countries. However, only rarely are these investments subjected to a serious economic analysis. The traditional focus

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Aad Correljé and Thorsten Schuetze

9. Decentral Water Supply and Sanitation Aad Correljé and Thorsten Schuetze INTRODUCTION In this chapter, we address the phenomenon of inverse infrastructures in areas with and without centralized infrastructures for water and sanitation (WSS). In the industrialized world as well as in emerging economies and less developed countries, we can observe a variety of stand-alone infrastructures for the supply of water and sanitation services. Whether or not in the presence of centralized systems, citizens do construct or purchase their own facilities to harvest and

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Robert B. Ekelund Jr and Edward O. Price III

8. The economics of sanitation and the utilitarian agenda INTRODUCTION The whole process and engineering of sanitation reform is often (and justly) regarded as Chadwick’s greatest achievement. Less recognized, perhaps, are the roles that sanitation reform and his prior investigations into English poverty played in shaping his analysis of the entire structure of the British economy. His firm aim of ‘sanitizing’ England had deep and broad implications and consequences for both economic and social well-being. His investigations into poverty and sanitation shaped

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Christopher Jeffords

1 INTRODUCTION Given the proliferation of constitutionally entrenched environmental rights provisions, 1 it is important to consider what, if any, effects said provisions have on environmental outcomes. Contributing to a nascent literature that quantitatively examines the relationships between constitutional environmental rights (CER) provisions and environmental outcomes (broadly speaking), this article focuses specifically on the temporal relationship between CER provisions and access to improved sanitation facilities and water sources. Concentrating on these

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Madeline Baer

6. The human right to water and sanitation: champions and challengers in the fight for new rights acceptance Madeline Baer Access to clean water and adequate sanitation are undeniably key components of a healthy life with dignity and the fulfillment of multiple human rights. Yet it took over two decades of pressure from civil society groups for the United Nations (UN) to officially recognize water and sanitation as human rights. A transnational “water justice movement” successfully pushed for this recognition despite opposition from powerful adversaries