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Sam Adelman

1 INTRODUCTION Geoengineering is the ‘deliberate, large-scale manipulation of the planetary environment in order to counteract anthropogenic climate change’. 1 The term refers to a diverse range of techniques commonly divided into solar radiation management (SRM) techniques and carbon dioxide removal (CDR). SRM techniques are designed to reflect sunlight back into space through the injection of sulphate particles into the stratosphere (to simulate volcanic eruptions – the so-called Pinatubo effect), marine cloud brightening, space-based mirrors, terrestrial and

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Brad Barnett, Emily W. Prehoda, Abhilash Kantamneni, Richelle L. Winkler and Chelsea Schelly

’Anse case study context By all accounts, the village of L’Anse, Michigan is an unlikely location for a community solar program. It is a remote rural location with relatively little solar radiation, low average income and education levels, and average electricity prices, located in a HALVORSEN_9781788115186_t.indd 123 03/01/2019 08:16 124  A RESEARCH AGENDA FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT state without policies or programs that explicitly promote or subsidize community solar programs. These characteristics suggest that solar development in L’Anse will be more expensive

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Cynthia L. Schwartz

impacted energy production in many basins and regions (DOE, 2006), no integration plan was identified, and no efforts were pursued by government agencies to price water based on its instrumental worth (DOE, 2006). The Energy Policy Act of 2005 also contributed to a ‘land grab’ for solar-power site permits in the southwestern desert. In 2007, the US Bureau of Land Management (BLM) sought to approve ‘renewable energy projects on Federal lands that generate at least 10 000 MW of electricity’ (US Bureau of Land Management [BLM], 2007) by 2015. Even though the BLM was

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Geoffrey Jones

photovoltaic (hereafter, PV) cell technology was born, which converted solar radiation directly into electricity. Section II explores the early history of parabolic solar collection. Section III discusses the early use of passive solar in architecture. Section IV explains origins of the PV solar industry in the United States. Section V examines the effects of rising oil prices on the industry, and Section VI the entry of big business into PV solar energy. Sections VII and VIII examine developments in Japan and Europe, respectively. Section IX concludes. II    THE

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Ravi Sarathy

on utility-­scale solar installations, with 300 kW minimum capacity, 1 year maximum construction period, and 201 years operations requirement. Such national policies are often supplemented with provincial and regional government subsidies. The Chinese government also launched a Township and Village Electri­­ fi­­cation Program, with government-­determined FiT of renewable energy into the grid. While China enjoys considerable irradiation – two-­thirds of China’s land area has over 2200 radiation hours annually (in ­comparison, Germany averages 400 hours per year

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David Humphreys

of greenhouse gases. To counter the effects of anthropogenic climate change two clusters of geoengineering technique have been proposed. Solar radiation management (SRM) aims to reduce the long-wave solar energy emitted from the earth, while carbon dioxide removal (CDR) aims to remove CO2, the most important greenhouse gas, from the atmosphere. Solar Radiation Management SRM techniques would either prevent short-wave solar radiation entering the atmosphere or increase the planetary albedo, thus reflecting more incoming short-wave radiation back into space. It has

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Marcela Miozzo and Paul Dewick

. In fact, solar radiation levels are not significantly different from those experienced by southern England (between 4 and 4.4kWh/m2 per day in July in Scotland compared to between 4.8 and 5kWh/m2 in southern England), and because of better air quality, solar transmittance tends to be better (Everett 1996, MacGregor 2000).14 In addition, relative to the UK, Scotland has a large number of houses without access to gas or with only electric heating and many which are difficult to heat and/or insulate and which Factors enabling and inhibiting sustainable technologies

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Richard L. Ottinger, Chen Yitong, Long Xue and Zheyuan Liu

, Securities, Investment Management, and Other Financial Services Primarily with Institutional Clients’, http://www2. goldmansachs.com/ (visited December 25, 2011). 50  Goldman Sachs, ‘CDH Invests Nearly 100 million Used in China’s Himin Solar’, http://www.forbes.com/feeds/afx/2008/12/12/afx5813430.html (visited 19 September 2011). 51  China Solar Valley, ‘A Journey to the Future’ [Chinese], http://www. chinasolarvalley.com/Index.html (visited 12 November 2011). 52  China Solar Valley, ‘Introduction’ [Chinese], http://www.chinasolarvalley. com/ (visited January 2, 2012). 53

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Richard L. Ottinger and Alexis Thuau

) and are planned to be in operation by the end of 2019. In order to meet these targets, the Moroccan Agency for Solar Energy (MASEN), established in March 2010 as a joint stock company, is in charge of conducting ‘overall project design, choice of operators, implementation, management, co-ordination and supervision of other activities related to this program.’5 The Aïn Beni Mathar power plant was the first project to be initiated under the public utility Office National de l’Electricité (O.N.E) ownership, although the project was first based on an Independent Power

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R. Quentin Grafton, Harry W. Nelson, N. Ross Lambie and Paul R. Wyrwoll

change and the policy response to it therefore begins with the greenhouse effect . The Earth’s climate system is driven by the Earth’s energy balance, which depends on the difference between the amount of incoming and outgoing radiation (the radiation budget or radiative balance). Incoming radiation is in the form of short-wave solar radiation . Approximately 46 percent of the incoming radiation reaching the atmosphere is either absorbed (20 percent) or reflected back into space by clouds, air molecules, and airborne particles (26 percent). The remaining solar