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Erik Kristiansen

3. 1 Designing innovative video games Erik Kristiansen INTRODUCTION As playing and gaming are as old as man, game designers have been with us for a long time, but were often elusive. Professional game designers were scarce before the introduction of the video game. One of the first mass-produced games was Monopoly, in 1935, which has sold more than 100 million copies. As video games are an increasingly important part of the entertainment industry, and as they in various forms both act as experiences themselves and are part of complex experiences, focus on the

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Marc Jonathan Blitz

8.  The First Amendment, video games, and virtual reality training Marc Jonathan Blitz 1. INTRODUCTION One of the great benefits of virtual reality is that it is, in certain respects, unreal. In virtual reality (“VR”), the physical environment in which one seems to be immersed is not really there. Consider the use of VR to fly a virtual plane through turbulent air. The plane that a VR user is piloting is a computer-generated illusion, produced within a head-mounted display that rests over her eyes. So too is the rough weather pushing against the illusory plane

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Kristin M.S. Bezio

10. Ready, aim, feel: empathy, identification and leadership in video games Kristin M.S. Bezio INTRODUCTION Since the 1980s, video games have widely been lambasted as a medium that is at best a waste of time and at worst a training ground for violence and aggression. Despite popularized media depictions of video games as corrupters of youth, to date, no study has definitively demonstrated any such link, at least to no greater degree than any other form of popular culture (Ferguson, 2013). As artifacts of popular culture, video games are just as capable of

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Keri Grieman

the peace’ is not an uncommon law or by-law and is used to cover a variety of sins. Nonetheless, the general rule of law applies only when set in advance, even if stretched to include acts not specifically laid out. In the video game world, the publisher 1 is judge, jury, and executioner – the ‘mods as gods’ model. This is particularly true for online multiplayer games. There is no overarching requirement of appeal process, legal representation, or judicial standard. While consumers may pursue the publisher through a real-world court system, the publisher's in

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Alexander Abyshko, Maria Mironova, Alfia Mutygullina, Ivan Ponomarev, German Sabirov and Anastasiya Chuvaeva

censorship. The need to censor video games is debatable. Video games containing particular types of content can be perceived with dismay by various parts of the Russian population. A well-known example of just such a reaction was triggered by Call of Duty: Modern Warfare 2 , which included a very controversial level called ‘No Russian’, where gameplay included participation in a mass shooting at a Moscow airport. 1 Video games that question patriotic feelings, and especially those dealing with the Great Patriotic War (the Russian name for the German-Soviet War), 2 tend

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Anna Vvedenskaya

usually falling out of the scope of the taxing rights at the market jurisdictions. These countries do not get their share of tax. This existing taxing rights allocation system is considered dissatisfying 3 and requiring a review in modern economic realities. 4 Multiple countries agreed to find a common solution and to shift a part of taxing rights to the user/market jurisdiction. 5 Video games (VGs) industry is a textbook example of a business driven by the digitalization of the economy. This industry among others is already affected by the new tax measures and can

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Isaac Knowles, Edward Castronova and Travis Ross

JOBNAME: Picard PAGE: 1 SESS: 4 OUTPUT: Fri Jan 23 14:35:50 2015 11. Video games, virtual worlds and economics Isaac Knowles, Edward Castronova and Travis Ross Video games have undergone a number of facelifts, transformations, and reinventions since the humble days of Pong and Pac-Man. The most advanced modern games are based in huge, immersive virtual worlds that are fully-rendered in 3D. Players interact with computer-controlled characters, many of them voice-acted by well-known celebrities and capable of the most minute facial expressions. The quality of

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Chris Dent

1. Introduction The digital sphere, including the internet, has posed many regulatory challenges. Two forms of expression that are currently receiving negative attention in the media are ‘fake news’ and video games. 1 When a third form of interactive expression is added to the mix, pornography produced by amateurs and ‘camgirls’, 2 the limitations of, and the attempted shifts in, the control of these forms of transgressive expressions are evident. This article is not aimed at ‘fixing’ the regulatory failures, or even suggesting specific solutions; 3 instead

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Alina Trapova and Emanuele Fava

1 Introduction As a digitally born entertainment industry, video games follow varying distribution models and revenue streams flow from diverging sources. In this setting, digital revenues clearly beat returns stemming from physical sales – the former are on average five times higher than the latter. 1 This puts the act of ‘selling’ a game online at centre stage. While we are quite used to the term ‘digital distribution’ in everyday language, does a purchase of a game on a digital platform such as Steam qualify as ‘distribution’ in copyright terms? This question

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Nick Kempton

1 Introduction Copyright law and the video games industry have always had an uneasy dynamic in the UK, where tensions have made it challenging for developers and publishers to protect certain elements of video games titles. Historically, the legal concept of copyright originated whereby protection was offered to literary works and over time the categories of work were expanded to include artistic works such as paintings, etchings and photographs. The goal of copyright is to protect the intellectual creativity that has been expressed through these subject matters