Applying Environmental Valuation Techniques to Historic Buildings, Monuments and Artifacts
Edited by Ståle Navrud and Richard C. Ready
David Maddison and Susana Mourato INTRODUCTION Stonehenge is one of the best known and archaeologically most important monuments in the world. It was constructed between 5,000 and 3,500 years ago and is composed of a circle of stones arranged in a pattern whose true significance remains a mystery. Apart from the stone circle, the surrounding area, much of which is owned by the National Trust,1 contains over 450 archaeological monuments such as Bronze Age barrows and the Cursus, which is variously interpreted as an ancient racecourse or a processional way. Stonehenge is managed by English Heritage2 and is one of the 16 UK sites designated by the United Nations as a World Heritage Site. Last year, 700,000 people paid to get into Stonehenge. Despite the undisputed importance of the site, Stonehenge suffers considerable intrusion in the form of two roads that pass close by on either side. The A303 passes to the south of the stone circle about 150 m away whilst the A344 passes to the north of the stone circle about 50 m away. This road layout is shown in Figure 7.1. Both roads are quite busy (the A303 particularly so) and visitors to the site can hear the traffic whilst walking around the stones. Even though the whole of the National Trust area is open to the public, these roads prevent visitors from wandering over the site. The situation of Stonehenge was described by a recent public enquiry as a ‘national disgrace’. Prompted...
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