In Search of Sustainable Solutions
Edited by Eran Feitelson and Erik Verhoef
Chapter 3: From policy measures to policy packages: a spatially, temporally and institutionally differentiated approach
Eran Feitelson, Ilan Salomon and Galit Cohen* INTRODUCTION A wide array of measures have been advanced to address transport’s environmental externalities. Nevertheless, the trends continue to be negative from the environmental perspective (Nijkamp, 1994; Pucher and Lefevre, 1996). One of the reasons for this is the wide variety and extent of externalities of transportation systems and the tradeoffs involved in any attempt to address these externalities. These tradeoffs are apparent across spatial levels, between externalities and between the measures advanced to address the different externalities. For example, measures improving the local environment by diverting traffic from residential zones, or promoting traffic-free areas in city centers, may have adverse environmental effects on a wider spatial scale – as congestion and local air pollutant concentrations along main thoroughfares may rise, and trip distribution may shift toward nodes with ample parking, subsequently encouraging the development of suburban centers, which in turn promotes vehicular traffic. Such tradeoffs are well known. Nevertheless, many of the proposals for ‘sustainable transport’ focus on improving a very limited set of indices – the most common in recent years being the reduction of air pollution and CO2 emissions – and discuss a very limited set of measures as the means to attain limited targets. However, many of the studies taking such a limited approach reach the conclusion that a single measure is insufficient even when trying to reach a limited set of objectives (see Barton, 1992, for an example). A very common conclusion of many studies is that policy measures have to...
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