A Modelling Approach
- Transport Economics, Management and Policy series
Edited by Bruno De Borger and Stef Proost
Chapter 8: External accident costs and the relationship between road accidents and traffic flows
8. External accident costs and the relationship between road accidents and traﬃc ﬂows Andrew Dickerson, John Peirson and Roger Vickerman* 8.1 INTRODUCTION The previous chapter considers the estimation of the marginal external costs of diﬀerent modes of transport. This short chapter examines one unresolved aspect of the estimation of the external costs of road accidents. The attention devoted to just one aspect of the estimation of the external costs of transport may be justiﬁed by the suggested substantial size of road accident external costs1 and, as will be shown shortly, there being a major problem with previous attempts to estimate these costs. The process of preparing estimates of the external costs of road accidents is usually divided up into three parts (see, for example, Maddison et al. 1996; Mayeres, Ochelen and Proost, 1996, and Peirson, Skinner and Vickerman, 1998). First, the relationship between road accidents and traﬃc ﬂows is examined. Second, those parts of accident costs that are external are considered. Finally, values are placed on these externalities. This chapter only examines the ﬁrst stage in the estimation of road accident externalities, that of identifying the functional relationship between accidents and vehicular ﬂows. The accident–ﬂow relationship is investigated by matching the UK’s Department of Transport’s London traﬃc ﬂow data for the mid-1990s with * We would like to thank, without implication, the Department of Transport for giving us access to the automatic count data used in this study. Particular thanks are due to Daniel Aromire...
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