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Reforming Transport Pricing in the European Union

A Modelling Approach

Edited by Bruno De Borger and Stef Proost

This timely book deals with the problem of pricing passenger and freight transportation within Europe. The contributors argue that current legislation affecting pricing and regulation is increasingly less successful in dealing with market failures and externalities such as congestion, air pollution, noise and accidents. Technological progress and greater European co-operation has brought increased scope for the reform of transport policies.
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Chapter 10: Speed-flow relationship and feasability of road-pricing technology

Margaret O’Mahony and K.J. Kirwan


10. Speed–flow relationship and feasibility of road-pricing technology Margaret O’Mahony and K.J. Kirwan 10.1 INTRODUCTION This chapter is divided into two parts. In the first, the research into selecting the most appropriate speed–flow relationship for use in the development of the TRENEN models is described. The selected function type was used in all of the applications. In the second part of the chapter the current state-of-the-art in road-use pricing is summarised including indications of likely future developments and uses of technology. The final part of the chapter describes a road-use pricing trial underway in Dublin which is using the TRENEN evaluations of external costs as the road-use charging levels. 10.2 SPEED–FLOW RELATIONSHIP RESEARCH OBJECTIVES The first objective was to quantify the external costs of congestion for which it was necessary to obtain a function describing the relationship between average speed on an urban network and the overall level of demand for car travel. The second objective was to examine the possibility of estimating the function from network parameters, such as, for example, junction capacities and number of junctions per unit length of network. 10.2.1 Link-based Speed–flow Relationships Link-based speed–flow relationships have been used mainly in engineering studies and for economic cost–benefit analysis. The relationships describe speeds and associated time costs at each level of traffic flow and are usually defined for road sections of homogeneous properties with few junctions. The Highway Capacity Manual (TRB, 1992) outlines the standard approach for deriving...

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