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Valuing the Environment in Developing Countries

Case Studies

Edited by David Pearce, Corin Pearce and Charles Palmer

In this book, the first of two volumes, the authors provide detailed case studies of valuation techniques that have been used in developing countries. They demonstrate that valuation works and that it can yield significant insights into policy-relevant issues regarding conservation and economic development. The authors address a whole range of environmental issues under the broad themes of water and air quality, biological diversity and forest functions. The economic approaches covered include contingent valuation, hedonic property prices, travel cost methodologies and benefits transfer.
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Chapter 7: Conflicts in conservation: the many values of the black rhinoceros

Case Studies

Timothy Swanson, Susana Mourato and Joseph Swierzbinski


7. Conflicts in conservation: the many values of the black rhinoceros Timothy Swanson, Susana Mourato, Joseph Swierzbinski and Andreas Kontoleon 1 INTRODUCTION The plight of the black rhinoceros is an important case study in the analysis of existing conservation policies. This species has been subject to the maximum level of protection that may be accorded to a species under the existing regimes, and yet its populations have seen a spectacular rate of decline. The species has been listed as endangered under the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) since its inception 20 years ago, and it has been the subject of extraordinary control measures in many of its range states. Nevertheless, the populations of this species have declined dramatically and it is clear that the current policies have been unable to preserve the previously current populations of black rhinoceros in Africa. This raises important questions concerning the validity of the assumptions underlying these policies. Why do not protected areas protect endangered species? Why do not anti-poaching policies prevent poaching? Why do not trade bans prevent commercial trade? This chapter is one of a series of studies initiated by the Centre for Social and Economic Research on the Global Environment to address these questions in the hope of learning from the experience with the black rhinoceros. The particular issue addressed in this chapter concerns the problem of ‘value aggregation’: the capacity for a range of different policies to combine to produce the maximum amount of total value...

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