Edited by David Pearce, Corin Pearce and Charles Palmer
Chapter 10: The economic returns to wildlife management in southern Africa
10. The economic returns to wildlife management in southern Africa Jonathan I. Barnes 1 INTRODUCTION The aim of this chapter is to review empirical evidence concerning the economics of various land use alternatives in southern Africa and their potential to contribute to rural development. In particular, the potential for wildlife utilization is examined, and focus is on the semi-arid and arid parts of the region, Namibia, Botswana, parts of South Africa and Zimbabwe, where agricultural land uses are extensive in nature. In particular, results of research in Botswana, Namibia and elsewhere are presented. Rural land tenure is split between traditional common property, on communal lands, and private property on commercial lands. Traditional agropastoralism and pastoralism are practised on communal land, and commercial agriculture is practised on commercial farms. Within the dual economies prevalent in the region, commercial farms are linked to markets in the modern sector, and agropastoralism contributes to the subsistence sector. Historically, the latter was neglected in favour of the former, but modern development eﬀorts place emphasis on the traditional economy. We can examine land uses according to the following major categories: G G G G commercial livestock production on private land, yielding direct use values from the range lands in the form of livestock products, mainly beef; traditional livestock keeping/agropastoralism on communal land, yielding a range of direct use values, including meat, milk, draft power, manure and store of value, as well as some non-use values; wildlife conservation on public land, yielding non-use values to society,...
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