Reinventing the Third World State
Edited by Willy McCourt and Martin Minogue
Chapter 4: New public management and development: the case of public services reform in Tanzania and Uganda
CHAPTER 4 20/10/00 3:49 pm Page 1 4. New public management and development: the case of public service reform in Tanzania and Uganda Jeremy Clarke and David Wood1 INTRODUCTION The spread of new approaches to public management (NPM) throughout the Anglophone Western world has been paralleled by a growing interest in middle-income and developing countries. Much of this has been donor-driven but the public pressure for improved services is generating increasing support from politicians and senior officials. Reforms have probably gone furthest in Latin America, where the trend towards introduction of new performancebased methods and to greater managerial autonomy in public sector institutions is most clearly marked. In some countries these efforts have shown some promising results where the conditions are right, but there are doubts about the sustainability of the approach (Burki and Perry, 1998). Elsewhere in the world and particularly in Africa, the introduction of new approaches has proceeded more slowly. This chapter will consider the experience of applying the new approaches in the public service of Tanzania and Uganda. The purpose is not to add to an already overcrowded debate about the ideological basis of this approach or its appropriateness to East Africa. Instead, the focus is on examining the history of the reforms and the actual experience. The emphasis is pragmatic, with a focus on what has been tried and why it worked (or failed) in the context of these two countries. The discussion is divided into seven main sections. The first describes the broad...
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