Edited by Raymond J.G.M. Florax, Peter Nijkamp and Kenneth G. Willis
Chapter 15: Critical success factors for urban energy policies: a meta-analytical comparison
15. Critical success factors for urban energy policies: a meta-analytical comparison Peter Nijkamp, Maurice Ursem 1 PATHWAYS TOWARDS URBAN ENERGY POLICIES There is a worldwide accordance on the need to economize on the use of scarce natural resources. Energy consumption in particular has become a focal point of policy interest, as intensiﬁed energy savings tend to have a ‘double dividend’ character: they reduce the cost of energy use and contribute also to an amelioration of environmental pollution problems. There is also a growing awareness that exploiting the potential of wise energy policy as a ‘double sword’ needs focused initiatives, not only at a global level but also – and in particular – at the meso level of cities and/or industrial sectors (for background information, see Archibugi, 1997; Breheny, 1992; Camagni et al., 1997; Haughton and Hunter, 1994; Nijkamp and Perrels, 1994; Nijkamp and Pepping, 1998; OECD, 1995; Wackernagel and Rees, 1996). As extensively argued in Nijkamp and Perrels (1994), there is no single and unambiguous concept for a successful urban sustainability policy which could be applicable everywhere. At best, there are fragmented initiatives which all serve the same broad sustainability objectives, but which are not based on a uniform concept for a clear, unambiguous urban energy/environmental policy strategy. In the OECD (1995) handbook on good local practices for energy policies, the wide diversity of numerous initiatives in many cities is clearly mapped out. Such initiatives may refer to the household sector (for example, district heating, dwellings insulation and peak load sharing)...
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