Knowledge Flows in National Systems of Innovation A Comparative Analysis of Sociotechnical Constituencies in Europe and Latin America
A Comparative Analysis of Sociotechnical Constituencies in Europe and Latin America
- New Horizons in the Economics of Innovation series
Edited by Roberto López-Martínez and Andrea Piccaluga
Chapter 2: National systems of innovation, industrial clusters and constituency-building in Scotland's electronics industry
2. National systems of innovation, industrial clusters and constituencybuilding in Scotland’s electronics industry* Alfonso Molina and Tony Kinder 2.1 INTRODUCTION The development of competitive industrial clusters and national innovation systems has become the aspiration of many countries seeking to strengthen their industrial and economic performance. Basically, this aspiration arises from a desire to emulate aspects of successful regions such as Silicon Valley: economic growth out of barren desert. Currently this appeal has grown as the world is witnessing the blurring of traditional industrial boundaries with the emergence of new industries such as multimedia that promise a window of opportunity and great wealth for those countries boasting innovative industrial clusters. Scotland is not alien to this trend and, indeed, it can be said that the country has a long experience of cluster fostering, as a result of the industrial regeneration started during the 1970s. At the time, Scotland’s industrial development organization, Scottish Enterprise (SE), targeted electronics as a critical sector for Scottish industrial development. Asked the question, most industrial strategy-makers will reply that they would like to have a strong, dynamic and long-term industry or capability contributing centrally to the growth and employment and wealth creation in their countries or regions: in short, a sustainable innovative national capability in the target industries. Sustainability is here deﬁned as a country’s ability to shape signiﬁcantly the content, direction and dynamism of the long-term evolution of a target industrial cluster or capability. The aim of this chapter is twofold. On the one...
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