Knowledge Flows in National Systems of Innovation A Comparative Analysis of Sociotechnical Constituencies in Europe and Latin America
A Comparative Analysis of Sociotechnical Constituencies in Europe and Latin America
- New Horizons in the Economics of Innovation series
Edited by Roberto López-Martínez and Andrea Piccaluga
Chapter 7: The role of the biotechnology and pharmaceutical scientific and productive clusters in the Cuban innovative activity
7. The role of the biotechnology and pharmaceutical scientiﬁc and productive clusters in the Cuban innovative activity Leonardo de la Rosa and Blanca Esther Martín 7.1 INTRODUCTION Nowadays, enterprises from developing and developed countries include marketing principles as part of the effective application of technological innovation in order to be more competitive and to become ﬁrmly established in the marketplace. In Cuba, this element of competition is replaced by the national goal to maximize its scientiﬁc and technological resources in order to maximize the production of goods and services (Figueras 1994). Thus, Cuba’s socioeconomic infrastructure requires a new approach which will (i) prioritize technological development at every level; (ii) integrate resources throughout the system; (iii) lead to the development of more efﬁcient and effective technologies nationwide; and (iv) allow for a better assimilation of domestic and foreign technologies. While the Cuban government has fostered technological innovation to the extent that there is already a synergetic inﬂuence on the country’s socioeconomic development, such development has been tightly controlled. What is needed now is the involvement of independent agents. The resulting plan for accomplishing this has been called the Cuban Technology Innovation System. One important element in stopping the economic crisis since 1994 has been the innovative capacity which little by little has been created in the ﬁeld of manufacturing and services, and that created in the interfaces between industry and commerce. A clear example of all this is given by scientiﬁc and productive clusters. One...
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