Knowledge Flows in National Systems of Innovation A Comparative Analysis of Sociotechnical Constituencies in Europe and Latin America
A Comparative Analysis of Sociotechnical Constituencies in Europe and Latin America
- New Horizons in the Economics of Innovation series
Edited by Roberto López-Martínez and Andrea Piccaluga
Chapter 8: Policymaking for constituency-building in Mexico
8. Policymaking for constituency-building in Mexico Alma Rocha-Lackiz and Roberto E. LópezMartínez 8.1 INTRODUCTION1 In the opinion of some authors, it would not seem to be necessary to question the relevance of implementing science and technology policies (STPs), but rather to deﬁne the way in which these measurements should be adopted (Branscomb 1992). However, in Mexico – where in the late 1990s, after almost three decades of carrying out actions to foster the development of science and technology, beneﬁts have not been reﬂected in economic or social terms – public intervention is being strongly questioned. Since the mid 1980s, based on an orthodox interpretation of the policies needed for free market economies, the Mexican government has been reducing its intervention in innumerable activities, including science and technology promotion. The alternative, that consists in involving the private sector in the production of scientiﬁc and technological knowledge,2 seems to be gaining ground and reﬂects the lack of intention of the government to dedicate more resources to increasing innovative performance. The fact that in practically all the industrialized countries and most of the recently industrialized nations the governments intervene in various ways in the promotion of science, technology and innovation is in clear contradiction to this trend. Furthermore, it has been put forward that developing countries need to reinforce their efforts fostering scientiﬁc and technological activities in order to accomplish industrial competitiveness in an era of globalization. In the present work, we shall argue that the...
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