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Knowledge Flows in National Systems of Innovation

A Comparative Analysis of Sociotechnical Constituencies in Europe and Latin America

Edited by Roberto López-Martínez and Andrea Piccaluga

The search for the key to economic growth has proved elusive and contentious. This book uses new empirical evidence to propose an integrated approach for achieving strong industrial and technological capabilities to form the basis for regional and national economic development.
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Chapter 10: Policies and shared values in the promotion of competitiveness: the Peruvian case

Mercedes Inés Carazo, Isaías Flit and Angel Hurtado


Mercedes Inés Carazo, Isaías Flit and Angel Hurtado 10.1 COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGES BASED ON INNOVATION1 Latin America needs to expand its economical and institutional reforms, to strengthen its research and development, to improve the knowledge and skills of its labor force, and to improve national and regional transport and communication infrastructures. (Enrique Iglesias, President of the Inter-American Development Bank) 10.1.1 Competitive Advantages The greatest competitive advantage of nations and regions lies in the quality of its human resources and in knowledge. We need people capable of creating and efficiently using new technologies and to apply them to our reality; creative and innovative human resources responsive to the necessities of production and to the improvement of the quality of life, to general welfare and to integral development. A basic element of competitiveness, which explains the success of leading nations and is reflected in the quality of life improvement, is the incorporation, generation, adaptation and permanent improvement of new knowledge and technical improvement to production. Thus, they make it more flexible, obtaining higher productivity; and achieving a growing specialization in products of higher added value and technological contents. One of the fundamental characteristics of the end of the century is the growing interdependence between the capacity to generate scientific and technological knowledge and the generation of wealth. In the future, this association will gradually strengthen, resulting in the urgent need for technological development and modernization. 248 Policies and shared values: the Peruvian case 249 The main economic trends...

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