The International Handbook of Telecommunications Economics, Volume III
Edited by Gary Madden
Chapter 2: Evolution of the telecommunications industry
2. Evolution of the telecommunications industry Martin Fransman INTRODUCTION In this chapter the transformation from the old to the new telecommunications industry, and then into an info-communications industry, is analysed. The demise of the old telecommunications industry began in the mid-1980s when, due to diﬀerent combinations of political and economic circumstances, monopoly telecommunications markets were opened to competition in Japan, the UK and the US. By the late 1990s there was widespread consensus that the liberalization of the industry was essential. Accordingly, the European Union and the World Trade Organization (WTO) agreed to liberalize telecommunications markets. The roots of change that gave birth to the new telecommunications industry in the early 1990s, however, were far more fundamental than the political and regulatory decisions that enforced change. In the 1990s a new set of inﬂuences that began 30 years earlier ultimately transformed the telecommunications industry into the info-communications industry. The source of change was the Internet based on its triad of core technologies: packet switching, Internet Protocol (IP), and the World Wide Web. THE TELECOMMUNICATIONS INDUSTRY AND THE ECONOMICS OF INDUSTRIAL CHANGE Despite important contributions made by economists a comprehensive theory of the dynamics of industry capable of explaining the process of change in speciﬁc industries does not exist.1 Indeed, the search for such a theory would inevitably be wrecked on the rocks of complexity and diversity. In these circumstances detailed accounts of the evolution of particular industries, which focus on what Schumpeter called the ‘engine of change’,...
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