Development, Trade and Resources in Asia
Chapter 6: Protection, Food Policy and the Environment in the Philippines
6.1 INTRODUCTION In this chapter we study interactions between policies, economic growth and the environment in the Philippines. We focus on deforestation and land degradation issues, and also on the causes and consequences of interregional migration and the relative price movements that help to drive natural resource allocation decisions. We also consider some urban/industrial pollution issues. In the following sections, we ﬁrst review recent economic and environmental trends (section 6.2). Next, in section 6.3 we examine speciﬁc recent economic trends and policy initiatives that have a bearing on environment and development, in particular the eﬀects of partial trade liberalization, and those of the Green Revolution in a policydistorted economy. Using an AGE model of the Philippine economy (section 64), we present some simulation results indicating likely trends in economic and environmental variables given trade liberalization or technical progress in agriculture. Section 6.5 presents a brief conclusion. 6.2 THE STATE OF THE PHILIPPINE ENVIRONMENT1 The Philippines’ environment and natural resource sector is generally classiﬁed as comprising ﬁve major interlinked, and sometimes overlapping, ecosystems: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. forest and upland; agriculture/cropland; fresh water; coastal and marine; and urban/industrial.2 Some of these ecosystems include signiﬁcant mineral and other natural resources; others also host a rich variety of ﬂora and fauna. The country is 141 142 The open economy and the environment home to 5 per cent of the world’s ﬂora, 6 per cent of the birds, and 4 per cent of the mammals; 67 per cent of...
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