Development, Trade and Resources in Asia
9. Conclusion The broad objective of this book has been to contribute to a deeper understanding of the links between economic activities and environmental outcomes in developing countries experiencing the multifaceted impact of globalization and policy reforms. Such an understanding is essential to the formulation of economy-wide policies to promote better patterns of natural resource use and sustain environmental quality in developing countries. Our particular emphasis has been on developing economies of Asia confronting serious environmental challenges. These have been caused not only by air and water pollution in urban areas but also by changes in patterns of land use that have had major eﬀects on levels of resource degradation and overall environmental outcomes. Land degradation and deforestation in major watersheds are issues of overriding concern, and diﬀerent types of land use and associated agricultural techniques have markedly diﬀerent environmental eﬀects. We have been guided in our analytical approach by the recognition that policies to address environmental goals must form an integral part of a country’s strategy for achieving major development goals, such as rapid economic growth, distributional equity, poverty alleviation and macroeconomic stability. Optimal development policies must establish a politically sustainable balance among economic, social and environmental goals. Hence, we have adopted an economy-wide framework to capture the general equilibrium repercussions of exogenous changes and policy measures on key variables of policy interest, presenting both low-dimensional analytical models that encompass the most important countryspeciﬁc characteristics as special cases, and richer, more ﬂeshed out, empirical...
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