Edited by Edward A. Page and Michael R. Redclift
Chapter 11: The Semantics of ‘Human Security’ in North–West Amazonia: Between Indigenous Peoples’ ‘Management of the World’ and the USA’s State Security Policy for Latin America
11. The semantics of ‘human security’ in North-west Amazonia: between indigenous peoples’ ‘management of the world’ and the USA’s state security policy for Latin America1 Oscar Forero and Graham Woodgate 1 ‘HUMAN SECURITY’: SECURITY FOR WHOM? Previous chapters in this book have clearly demonstrated that ‘security’ is a contested concept. A variety of political actors seek to legitimise policy and practice in the name of national or human security. They have found support among a diverse audience of governments and NGOs seeking to defend human and/or environmental rights that, not coincidentally, aim to guarantee some form of security. In response to national and international policy, various social movements and actor networks have developed counterdiscourses to support grassroots activists in their struggles to win political reform. On 1 October 1995, the French government detonated an underground nuclear device at their Mururoa Atoll test site in the Paciﬁc Ocean. The event was justiﬁed as a necessary component in the development of the French national security system, which was perceived to be too dependent on NATO capabilities. Environmentalists claimed that the risks associated with nuclear explosions under the Mururoa Atoll were too high and that testing should be abandoned. Greenpeace activists attempting to disrupt the test were arrested and their ships and helicopter conﬁscated. As an immediate result of the tests, the Mururoa lagoon turned white as the blast heaved up the ocean ﬂoor and loaded the water with sediment. Scientists are divided with respect to the long-term effects, but...
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