Edited by Robert U. Ayres and Leslie W. Ayres
Chapter 38: Industrial ecology and spatial planning
Clinton J. Andrews This chapter links IE to geography and the planning of our built environment. First, it illustrates why spatial questions – ‘where? how far?’ – are important in IE. Second, it brieﬂy discusses the diﬃculty and importance of aligning the IE perspective with political geography. Third, it deﬁnes spatial planning and describes its origins. The fourth and longest section shows how spatial planning practices aﬀect the implementation of IE ideas. The chapter closes with an argument that there are important conceptual linkages between the intellectual projects of IE and planning. Town planning, urban planning and regional planning are familiar, almost prosaic activities of governments worldwide. The connections to IE include both the practical, such as the design of industrial parks, and the conceptual, such as the role of utopian visions in guiding incremental decisions. Planners and industrial ecologists have much to oﬀer one another. WHY GEOGRAPHY MATTERS Geography inﬂuences and even deﬁnes economic and ecological phenomena, and hence industrial ecologists cannot ignore it. Most obviously, resources are unevenly distributed in space, so that the bundle of environmental characteristics varies by location. Materials as diverse as air pollutants, water and mineral deposits all diﬀer in concentration by orders of magnitude from place to place. The spatial incidence of humans and other species both reﬂects and inﬂuences this variation (Redman 1999). Distance-related frictions aﬀect the diﬀusion of species as well as the details of producer and consumer behavior, industrial...
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