Edited by Robert U. Ayres and Leslie W. Ayres
40. Closed-loop supply chains V. Daniel R. Guide, Jr and Luk N. van Wassenhove There are numerous examples and cases available of products that are being re-used via remanufacturing or recycling, or combinations of re-use activities (Thierry et al. 1995; Krikke et al. 1999; Guide 2000; Toktay et al. 2000; Fleischmann 2000). However, these products and their supply chains are not all the same with respect to a number of critical dimensions, including product acquisition, reverse logistics, inspection, testing and disposition, remanufacturing, and distribution and selling of the remanufactured product. In the following sections we document a number of diverse products that are currently being remanufactured and describe their supply chains. After each case, we summarize and discuss the distinguishing features of the supply chains. Finally, we discuss the management of each of the diﬀerent supply chain systems and identify the key research issues. SUPPLY CHAINS FOR REFILLABLE CONTAINERS Xerox Copy/Print Cartridge Return Program Xerox introduced its program for copy/print cartridge returns in 1991 and, currently it covers 80 per cent of the toner/print cartridge line. In 1998, Xerox expanded the program to include the recycling of waste toner from high-speed copier and commercial production publishing systems. The return rate for cartridges in Europe and North America was greater than 60 per cent for 1998. This equates to over 2.86 million kilograms of material remanufactured or recycled just from cartridges. Xerox reports avoiding almost 23 million kilograms of landﬁll because of its re-use programs. The cartridges are designed...
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