A Handbook of Industrial Ecology
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A Handbook of Industrial Ecology

Edited by Robert U. Ayres and Leslie W. Ayres

Industrial ecology is coming of age and this superb book brings together leading scholars to present a state-of-the-art overviews of the subject. Each part of the book comprehensively covers the following issues in a systematic style: the goals and achievements of industrial ecology and the history of the field; methodology, covering the main approaches to analysis and assessment; economics and industrial ecology; industrial ecology at the national/regional level; industrial ecology at the sectoral/materials level; and applications and policy implications.
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Chapter 46: Industrial ecology and integrated assessment: an integrated modeling approach for climate change

Michel G.J. den Elzen and Michiel Schaeffer

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45. Industrial ecology and integrated assessment: an integrated modeling approach for climate change Michel G.J. den Elzen and Michiel Schaeffer This chapter describes the background and modeling approaches used in simple climate models (SCMs) (Harvey et al. 1997). In general, SCMs are the simplified models used by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) to provide projections of the atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases, global mean temperature and sea-level change response using as input emissions scenarios describing the future developments in the emissions of greenhouse gases. SCMs are computationally more efficient than more complex, computationally expensive three-dimensional models such as atmosphere– ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs). SCMs are therefore particularly suitable for multiple scenario studies, uncertainty assessments and analysis of feedbacks. The SCM approach is illustrated by applying one such model, meta-IMAGE (den Elzen 1998), to uncertainty analysis. The SCM meta-IMAGE is a simplified version of the more complex climate assessment model IMAGE 2. IMAGE 2 aims at a more thorough description of the complex, longterm dynamics of the biosphere–climate system at a geographically explicit level (0.5°ϫ0.5 ° latitude–longitude grid) (Alcamo et al. 1996, 1998). Meta-IMAGE is a more flexible, transparent and interactive simulation tool that adequately reproduces the IMAGE-2.1 projections of global atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases, temperature increase and sea-level rise for the various IMAGE 2.1 emissions scenarios (see Figure 45.1). Meta-IMAGE consists of an integration of a global carbon cycle model (den Elzen et al. 1997), an atmospheric chemistry model and...

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