Travel Behaviour
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Travel Behaviour

Spatial Patterns, Congestion and Modelling

Edited by Eliahu Stern, IIan Salomon and Piet H.L. Bovy

Travel Behaviour is a challenging and original volume, adding to the growing literature focusing on understanding transportation systems. The book capitalises on actual scientific and applied developments in Europe, the importance of EC policies and the resultant trend in studying differences between North American and European research.
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Chapter 3: The effects of parking pricing and supply on travel patterns to a major business district

Yoram Shiftan


Yoram Shiftan 1. INTRODUCTION It has long been recognized that transportation supply cannot meet demand in city centers. To solve transportation congestion, air pollution and safety problems, transportation control measures (TCM) must be implemented. Central Business District (CBD) auto-restraint policies should be part of any efficient strategy to reduce the use of private cars in city centers. Such policies include tolls, area permits or licenses, physical restrictions, high-occupancy-vehicle priority schemes, a complete ban on cars in selected streets, and parking management. In many countries, governments are increasingly recognizing the use of parking policies as a means of reducing urban road traffic (Barde and Button, 1990; Verhoef et al., 1996; Voith, 1998), and many researchers believe that parking measures are effective means of managing travel demand (McShane and Meyer, 1982; Brade and Button, 1990). Parking management can be applied on many dimensions, including the number of parking spaces and their spatial distribution, parking rates, time limits, residential parking permits, taxes, employee parking, and level of enforcement. The total amount of parking available in the city center can affect the amount of traffic entering the area, and the location and layout of these spaces can affect the movement of traffic within the center. On-street parking reduces the traffic capacity of roads in and approaching the center. Parking programs, however, do not affect through traffic; they can actually increase it, and they may also increase the number of chauffeur-driven cars. Parking management can be used to encourage...

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