Spatial Patterns, Congestion and Modelling
Edited by Eliahu Stern, IIan Salomon and Piet H.L. Bovy
Chapter 3: The effects of parking pricing and supply on travel patterns to a major business district
Yoram Shiftan 1. INTRODUCTION It has long been recognized that transportation supply cannot meet demand in city centers. To solve transportation congestion, air pollution and safety problems, transportation control measures (TCM) must be implemented. Central Business District (CBD) auto-restraint policies should be part of any efﬁcient strategy to reduce the use of private cars in city centers. Such policies include tolls, area permits or licenses, physical restrictions, high-occupancy-vehicle priority schemes, a complete ban on cars in selected streets, and parking management. In many countries, governments are increasingly recognizing the use of parking policies as a means of reducing urban road trafﬁc (Barde and Button, 1990; Verhoef et al., 1996; Voith, 1998), and many researchers believe that parking measures are effective means of managing travel demand (McShane and Meyer, 1982; Brade and Button, 1990). Parking management can be applied on many dimensions, including the number of parking spaces and their spatial distribution, parking rates, time limits, residential parking permits, taxes, employee parking, and level of enforcement. The total amount of parking available in the city center can affect the amount of trafﬁc entering the area, and the location and layout of these spaces can affect the movement of trafﬁc within the center. On-street parking reduces the trafﬁc capacity of roads in and approaching the center. Parking programs, however, do not affect through trafﬁc; they can actually increase it, and they may also increase the number of chauffeur-driven cars. Parking management can be used to encourage...
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