Travel Behaviour
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Travel Behaviour

Spatial Patterns, Congestion and Modelling

Edited by Eliahu Stern, IIan Salomon and Piet H.L. Bovy

Travel Behaviour is a challenging and original volume, adding to the growing literature focusing on understanding transportation systems. The book capitalises on actual scientific and applied developments in Europe, the importance of EC policies and the resultant trend in studying differences between North American and European research.
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Chapter 9: Geographical classification of trips as a tool for policy assessment

Jean-Pierre Orfeuil


9. Geographical classification of trips as a tool for policy assessment Jean-Pierre Orfeuil 1. INTRODUCTION Traffic, and especially car traffic, is increasing in most of the European countries at an annual growth rate of between 1 and 4 per cent, depending on the country. The majority of car traffic is generated by everyday life activities and occurs where people live, that is in urban areas and their environs.1 Many authors have pointed to a contradiction between these annual growth rates and the fact that road networks cannot expand at the same speed, especially in urban areas where land availability is very limited. These authors have predicted major congestion as a result of this contradiction. Congestion does exist, but, at the same time, one can observe that in France the mean car speed continues to increase. It is important to clarify and understand this observation. A second point to investigate is the dependence of traffic growth on the suburbanization process: should we consider this growth as the result of urban sprawl only, or is it the result of other factors, such as a decreasing attention paid to distances in the selection of our activity locations? These questions are addressed in section 2, with census data describing the relative positioning of home and job locations. A third point is traffic-calming strategies and their ability to reduce car traffic. Can we use a geographical analysis of travel patterns to estimate the potential benefits of these...

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