Spatial Patterns, Congestion and Modelling
Edited by Eliahu Stern, IIan Salomon and Piet H.L. Bovy
Chapter 9: Geographical classification of trips as a tool for policy assessment
9. Geographical classiﬁcation of trips as a tool for policy assessment Jean-Pierre Orfeuil 1. INTRODUCTION Trafﬁc, and especially car trafﬁc, is increasing in most of the European countries at an annual growth rate of between 1 and 4 per cent, depending on the country. The majority of car trafﬁc is generated by everyday life activities and occurs where people live, that is in urban areas and their environs.1 Many authors have pointed to a contradiction between these annual growth rates and the fact that road networks cannot expand at the same speed, especially in urban areas where land availability is very limited. These authors have predicted major congestion as a result of this contradiction. Congestion does exist, but, at the same time, one can observe that in France the mean car speed continues to increase. It is important to clarify and understand this observation. A second point to investigate is the dependence of trafﬁc growth on the suburbanization process: should we consider this growth as the result of urban sprawl only, or is it the result of other factors, such as a decreasing attention paid to distances in the selection of our activity locations? These questions are addressed in section 2, with census data describing the relative positioning of home and job locations. A third point is trafﬁc-calming strategies and their ability to reduce car trafﬁc. Can we use a geographical analysis of travel patterns to estimate the potential beneﬁts of these...
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