Spatial Patterns, Congestion and Modelling
Edited by Eliahu Stern, IIan Salomon and Piet H.L. Bovy
Chapter 12: A conceptual model of the weekly household activity/travel scheduling process
Sean T. Doherty, Eric J. Miller, Kay W. Axhausen and Tommy Gärling 1. INTRODUCTION Over the past several decades a strong argument has been made for the use of an activity-based approach to further our understanding of travel behaviour, to improve travel demand forecasting, and to better assess the impacts of emerging transportation policies. The rationale for an activity-based approach has been well documented (for example Ettema and Timmermans, 1997). One of the key questions of this approach is how individuals and households make and adapt their activity/travel decisions. These include the interdependent decisions about which activities to perform, where, at what time, for what duration, with whom, coupled with mode and route choice. When these decisions are coupled with their planning and execution over time, they deﬁne an ‘activity-scheduling’ process. This series of dependencies can be viewed as follows: Scheduling process ⇑ Activity–travel pattern (or schedule) ⇑ Activities ⇑ Trips As one moves up in this framework, a greater understanding of trips and travel patterns is achieved, especially of the more complex trip chaining, off-peak and discretionary trips. The trade-off in understanding comes at a price in terms of the complexity of the phenomenon and of the observation task. 233 234 Modelling behavioural responses Regardless of the added complexities, travel behaviour researchers are increasingly recognizing the need for in-depth research into the household activity-scheduling process. Early on, Pas (1985) noted that existing theories and methodologies dealt almost exclusively with travel and related behaviour at particular points in time, but...
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