The Uruguay Round and Beyond
Edited by Ramesh Adhikari and Prema-chandra Athukorala
Chapter 5: Environmental standards and trade in agricultural products: evidence from Brazil, Germany and Indonesia*
Chapter 5 11/2/02 1:14 pm Page 1 5. Environmental standards and trade in agricultural products: evidence from Brazil, Germany and Indonesia* Ulrike Grote, Claus Deblitz and Susanne Stegmann International trade in agricultural products takes place among countries at different levels of development that have varying preferences for maintaining environmental standards. At the same time, the awareness of and emphasis on environmental problems and food safety issues have grown at the global, regional and national levels. Some of the main concerns include climate change, ozone depletion, soil degradation, vanishing biodiversity, deforestation and smoke from forest burning, mad cow disease and transgenic food products or genetically modified organisms. This situation has led to conflicting positions between the industrial and the developing countries. The industrial countries demand the enforcement of higher environmental and food safety standards to ensure that environmental costs are internalized and the safety of agricultural products is secured. However, at the same time they fear losing international competitiveness because higher environmental standards lead to higher production costs. Developing countries, by contrast, fear that the industrial countries might use environmental standards as nontariff barriers, leading to restricted market access and the loss of competitive advantage. In the context of WTO negotiations, this means that the industrial countries often wish to include environmental issues in the trade agenda, because the WTO offers the possibility of using trade sanctions or import bans as enforcement measures for raising environmental standards abroad, especially in developing countries. However, many developing countries perceive the entwining of...
You are not authenticated to view the full text of this chapter or article.
Elgaronline requires a subscription or purchase to access the full text of books or journals. Please login through your library system or with your personal username and password on the homepage.
Non-subscribers can freely search the site, view abstracts/ extracts and download selected front matter and introductory chapters for personal use.
Your library may not have purchased all subject areas. If you are authenticated and think you should have access to this title, please contact your librarian.