Globalization, Universities and Issues of Sustainable Human Development
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Globalization, Universities and Issues of Sustainable Human Development

Edited by Jean L. Pyle and Robert Forrant

This volume raises an important question: Given the fast-changing global economy and the challenges it presents, what is the role for the university as an institution promoting sustainable human development? The editors begin by outlining the changes associated with the recent wave of globalization, particularly transformations in the relative power of institutions internationally. They analyze the constraints universities face in industrialized and developing countries in promoting sustainable human development.
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Chapter 5: Sex, Maids, and Export Processing: Risks and Reasons for Gendered Global Production Networks

Jean L. Pyle


1 Jean L. Pyle I. INTRODUCTION Increasing numbers of women have become sex workers, maids or domestics, and workers in export production networks – all largely female sectors – in order to earn incomes in the restructured global economy. Many must migrate domestically and internationally to obtain these types of jobs. These industries have expanded throughout the past three decades and span the globe, occurring in ever widening areas of the developing world as well as in the so-called industrialized countries. Women in these three sectors encounter a wide range of risks. They have few rights and little security. They typically experience low wages, no benefits, long hours, harassment, considerable health hazards and lack of rights in their workplaces. Since these women are not only present-day workers but also reproducers of the next generation of workers, these conditions affect growth possibilities in the future as well as impact on the current economic conditions of households and nations. However, in spite of their substantial economic importance to their countries, these women are still largely invisible – from national income accounts and from recent discussions by power brokers on the international scene (leaders of the G-7 or the heads of the World Bank or International Monetary Fund) about how to stabilize the international economy and deal with economically troubled nations. In addition, the forces behind the growth of women’s work in these three sectors have not been systematically analysed. Several key questions arise regarding these trends. G Why are we seeing the growth...

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