Comparing Austria, Germany, Greece, Portugal and the UK
Edited by Eleni Apospori and Jane Millar
Chapter 2: The risk of multidimensional disadvantage and social exclusion during four life stages in a dynamic perspective
2. The risk of multidimensional disadvantage and social exclusion during four life stages in a dynamic perspective Panos Tsakloglou INTRODUCTION Tsakloglou and Papadopoulos (2002) analysed the risk of multidimensional disadvantage and social exclusion of four risk groups – retired persons, sick or disabled persons, young adults and lone parents – in comparison with the living standards of the entire population from a static point of view in ﬁve EU member states (Austria, Germany, Greece, Portugal and the UK) using the micro data of the second wave of the European Community Household Panel (ECHP). The purpose of this analysis is to repeat this exercise in a dynamic framework, using the data of the ﬁrst three waves of the ECHP, which cover the period 1994–6. Naturally, this limited time span is less than ideal for a dynamic analysis, but this was the only ECHP information available during the implementation of our project. For the purposes of the main part of the analysis, comparisons are performed in terms of low income (poverty), and relative deprivation in the ﬁelds of housing amenities, ability to aﬀord particular durable goods and household necessities. In broad terms, the results of the static analysis show that a number of similarities and diﬀerences can be identiﬁed in these ﬁve countries with respect to the relative welfare position of the four risk groups under examination. According to most of the indices used, two of these groups – members of lone-parent households and sick or disabled persons – face a substantially...
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