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Chapter 20: Country Equity and Product-Country Images: State-of-the-Art in Research and Implications
20. Country equity and productcountry images: state-of-the-art in research and implications Nicolas Papadopoulos and Louise A. Heslop INTRODUCTION Country images are pervasive in society and can have a signiﬁcant inﬂuence on buyers of all types. Incorporated as they are in countries’ names and other formal ‘trademarks’ such as their ﬂags and currencies, as well as in their music and landmarks, people and personalities, cultural and product exports, and countless other symbols, these images are an integral part of people’s cognitive belief structures and often evoke strong emotions. In line with buyer behavior theory, therefore, they are by deﬁnition a potentially important driver of marketplace behavior. This chapter is about the images of countries and other places, their eﬀects on buyers, and their implications for a wide variety of sellers ranging from ﬁrms marketing traditional products to countries marketing themselves to attract investment and tourism. The chapter comprises four main sections which also reﬂect its speciﬁc objectives. The ﬁrst provides a brief background and supplies the needed context for the discussion that follows. The second outlines the methodology used to develop a near-exhaustive inventory of research in this ﬁeld, which at this time numbers well over 700 publications, and the third presents the ﬁndings from the inventory. Lastly, the fourth section assesses the state of the art on the role of place images in marketing by reviewing the ﬁndings of past studies and suggesting avenues for future research. BACKGROUND AND CONTEXT Country- and other place-related...
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