An International Comparative Analysis
FDI GDI GDP GERD GNP GRI HRD IMF IT LDC MNC MVA NGO NIC NSI OECD PPP R&D RSE S&T SME TFP TNC TRIPS USPTO VC WTO foreign direct investment gross domestic investment gross domestic product gross expenditure in R&D gross national product government research institute human resources development International Monetary Fund information technology less-developed country multinational company manufacturing value added non-governmental organisation newly industrialised country national systems of innovation Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development purchasing power parity research and development density of research scientists and engineers science and technology small and medium-sized enterprise total factor productivity transnational corporation trade-related intellectual property rights United States Patent and Trademark Oﬃce venture capital Word Trade Organisation vii
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