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Government, Innovation and Technology Policy

An International Comparative Analysis

Sunil Mani

This unique book offers a comprehensive analysis of the changing role of government with respect to domestic technology development in eight countries in both the developed and the developing world. The author distinguishes between those countries which can be classed as creators of new technologies (Japan, Korea and Israel) and those which possess the potential to create new technologies (Singapore, Malaysia, India, South Africa and Brazil).
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Chapter 10: Conclusions

An International Comparative Analysis

Sunil Mani


R&D activities, especially when carried out at the enterprise level, are an important input to domestic technology development. There is now enough consensus that R&D cannot be left entirely to the private sector. This consensus is based on the powerful theoretical result enunciated by Arrow (1962) in one of his much cited papers. His argument is that if R&D activities are entirely left to the private sector, then this will soon lead to underinvestments. This is based on the fact that private sector firms fail to recoup the full returns from their investments in R&D owing to their difficulty in appropriating the full returns from their own research efforts, despite the existence of institutional mechanisms such as patenting, which bestows at least a temporary monopoly to generators of technology. Economists have attempted to capture this by computing the spillover gap or in other words the gap between private and social rates of returns for a sample of innovations. Available empirical estimates of the spillover gap indicate that the desire to underinvest in R&D exists in free market economies such as the United States, Western Europe and Japan. In order to reverse this trend, governments have been putting in place a whole host of mainly fiscal measures to encourage enterprises to commit more resources to R&D. These fiscal measures manifest themselves in the form of various types of tax subsidies and research grants. There is now a considerable amount of research on the...

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