Chapter 4: Bureaucracy under the Colonial Rule
4. Bureaucracy under the colonial rule COLONIAL EXPERIENCE AND TRADITIONAL POLITICAL CULTURE The opening of the door of the Chosun dynasty to the outside world in the nineteenth century brought new challenges to its traditional ruling system based on ‘invincible’ Confucianism, notably from an emerging power, Japan. Opening its eyes to the outside world shook the self-complacency of the secluded kingdom over its ideological underpinning of Confucianism that buttressed its ruling system, and stirred both the ruling class and populace toward a series of reformation movements – the abortive Kapshin Coup, peasants’ Tonghak (literally meaning Eastern learning) Movement, Kapo Reformation, Independent Club activities and so forth. All of these movements were not so much intended to break with the old system at all: rather, they might as well be viewed as an effort to preserve and protect the old system, with partial modifications made under the pressures of foreign powers calling for a fresh approach starting from scratch. By winning victories in hegemonic struggles with China and the Russian Empire, Japan cleared her path of obstacles to the colonialization of its once cultural mentor. This section attempts to fathom the depth of changes made in traditional bureaucratic culture under Japanese colonial rule.1 The perception of Japanese-induced changes reflects two viewpoints. One refers to the cultural backgrounds that the two nations have shaped toward sino-orientation under an overarching umbrella of Chinese influence. It was against this cultural background that Japan expected its pattern of ruling to find a built-in receptivity among Koreans....
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