Globalization and Entrepreneurship
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Globalization and Entrepreneurship

Policy and Strategy Perspectives

Edited by Hamid Etemad and Richard Wright

The contributors to this collection provide a wealth of new analyses of both traditional and emerging aspects of entrepreneurship, from a variety of national perspectives and from a variety of disciplines. Globalization has begun to dismantle the barriers that traditionally segregated local business opportunities and local firms from their international counterparts. Local markets are becoming integral parts of broader, global markets. As globalization proceeds apace, entrepreneurs and small businesses will play a more prominent role on the global business arena. The volume is divided into three sections. The first looks at the internationalization process itself while the second focuses on factors facilitating this process in small and medium-sized firms. The last section examines emerging dimensions in management policy.
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Chapter 8: Small Business in the Czech Republic and Japan: Successes and Challenges for Women Entrepreneurs

Terri R. Lituchy, Philip Bryer and Martha A. Reavley


Terri R. Lituchy, Philip Bryer and Martha A. Reavley* INTRODUCTION Throughout the world, women are starting and operating their own business at a much greater rate than are men (Economist, 1996; Chandler and Murphy, 1994; Capowski, 1992). Many of these entrepreneurs are involved in international business (Knight, 2000). From 1980 to 1994, the number of female entrepreneurs has tripled in the US to almost eight million. Onethird of all US businesses are owned by women (Esters, 1997). On an international basis, the growth rate of women-owned businesses is similar to that of the United States (OECD, 1986; Silvestri and Lukasiewicz, 1987). In the Czech Republic, for the first time in over 50 years, women as well as men have the opportunity to start their own businesses and to earn a profit. In several Asian countries, such as Japan, the economic crisis has reduced the opportunities for women in large firms. The crisis has forced many Japanese women to work outside the home to supplement their husbands’ incomes. These conditions have provided entrepreneurial Japanese women with a reason to start their own small businesses. The purpose of this chapter is to understand women small-business owners in other cultures, specifically the Czech Republic and Japan. Interviews with women entrepreneurs in both countries were used as the basis for this qualitative case-study research. Many researchers have examined the differences between male and female entrepreneurs in the United States. They have found differences in * Earlier versions of this paper were...

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