Edited by Marcela Miozzo and Ian Miles
Chapter 6: National versus International Effects in Regional Concentration of European Innovative Business Services
6. National versus international eﬀects in regional concentration of European innovative business services Luis Rubalcaba-Bermejo and David Gago-Saldaña INTRODUCTION This chapter focuses on the role of international and national eﬀects in regional concentration of innovative services.1 The increasing inﬂuence exerted by globalization on service industries is epitomized by the case of innovative advanced services, many of which were traditionally located only according to national, regional or urban patterns. The process of globalization might suggest a certain uneven balance between national and international patterns. This chapter aims to present some European comparative results through the use of some key explanatory factors for business service location (qualiﬁcations, innovative performance, density and economic development). The chapter discusses some of the driving forces inﬂuencing locational patterns both at a national and at an international level, with a special emphasis on innovative (advanced) services. The analysis is based on unpublished EUROSTAT data on the number of business services employees at NUTS1 or/and NUTS2 levels (Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics) and considers three main categories of business services: advanced, traditional and operational, even though two other categories, namely computer and research and development services (R&D), have also been included selectively in some analyses. These latter two categories come from a further desegregation of the advanced business services.2 Only the regions of ﬁve countries make up the European comparative results presented: France, United Kingdom, Austria, Belgium and Finland. The data refer to the year 1997. The chapter is organized...
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