Environmental Accounting in Action
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Environmental Accounting in Action

Case Studies from Southern Africa

Glenn-Marie Lange, Rashid Hassan, Kirk Hamilton and Moortaza Jiwanji

Environmental Accounting in Action studies the experiences of Namibia, Botswana and South Africa, the core countries of a unique, regional environmental accounting programme in Southern Africa. Covering minerals, forestry, fisheries and water, each chapter provides important lessons about sustainable resource management. As a whole, the case studies demonstrate how to overcome the many challenges of constructing environmental accounts and the mechanics of successful implementation. By providing a transparent system of information about the relationship between human activities and the environment, the accounts have improved policy dialogue among different stakeholders and have played a significant role in environmental policy design.
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Chapter 4: Fisheries Accounts: Management of a Recovering Fishery

Glenn-Marie Lange


Glenn-Marie Lange 4.1 INTRODUCTION The world fish catch has roughly tripled over the past few decades from 40 million metric tons in 1961 to just under 120 million tons in 1998 (Figure 4.1). Fish are an important source of protein, consumed either directly as food, or as fishmeal input in livestock production and aquaculture. Despite this enormous increase, per capita fish consumption (including fishmeal used as animal feed) has not changed that much, increasing roughly 50 per cent from a global Catch: millions of tons Use: kg per person 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 1961 1963 1965 1967 1969 1971 1973 1975 1977 1979 1981 1983 1985 1987 1989 1991 1993 1995 World fish catch and per capita consumption, 1961–98 111 Freshwater Marine kg/person Note: Data for fish catch include both aquaculture and capture fisheries. Source: Data based on (FAO, 2001a), Population Dept. of Commerce, United States Census Bureau (2001). Figure 4.1 1998 0 112 Environmental accounting in action average of 13 kg per person in 1961 to 19 kg in 1986, where it has remained since then, with some annual fluctuations. Although aquaculture has grown rapidly, capture fisheries still provide most of the world’s fish catch. This rapid increase in fish production has put enormous pressure on the world’s fish stocks and the majority of fisheries are either at or beyond sustainable exploitation. While total catch measured in tons has grown over time, what the aggregate figures do not show is the replacement of high-value fish...

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