A Cross-country Comparison
Edited by Jean-Michael Glachant and Dominique Finon
Chapter 5: The Deregulated Electricity Markets in Norway and Sweden: A Tentative Assessment
5. The deregulated electricity markets in Norway and Sweden: a tentative assessment Eirik S. Amundsen and Lars Bergman INTRODUCTION1 In February 1999 the EU electricity market directive became eﬀective. This was a major step towards a single market for electricity in Europe, and implied signiﬁcant changes in electricity market institutions in most EU member states (Bergman et al., 1999). However, already at the beginning of the 1990s major electricity market reforms were implemented in the UK (England and Wales) and Norway. Furthermore, in 1996, a similar reform was implemented in Sweden and since then, there is an integrated Norwegian-Swedish2 electricity market. The common thrust of this process is that national electricity markets that historically have been subject to detailed regulation are being transformed to markets where prices are determined by the interplay of supply and demand, and where competition and international trade are key features. In spite of these basic common elements, however, competitive electricity markets can be designed in many diﬀerent ways. This is illustrated by the signiﬁcant institutional diﬀerences between the former electricity market in England and Wales and the Norwegian-Swedish electricity market. There are also some important diﬀerences between Norway and Sweden with respect to electricity market design. The purpose of this paper is to brieﬂy describe the design and functioning of the Norwegian–Swedish, in the following called the ‘Nordic’, electricity market, and to make a preliminary evaluation of the experiences accumulated so far. Needless to say the design...
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