Chapter 8: Framing organizational emergence: discourse, identity and relationship
Denise Fletcher INTRODUCTION: MOVEMENTS IN ENTREPRENEURSHIP RESEARCH A search on definitions of ‘movement’ provides five ways of exploring directions and developments in entrepreneurship research. Four definitions of ‘movement’ are used to frame a short overview of dominant trends and directions in entrepreneurship research and to provide background and context to the fifth movement, which is the focus of this chapter. The first definition of ‘movement’ relates to verbs of ‘doing’ (i.e. action, activity, advance, agitation, change, development, displacement, exercise, flow, gesture, manoeuvre, motion, moving, operation, progression, shift, steps, stir, drift, stirring and transfer). These verbs are widely reflected in entrepreneurship research to account for how certain individuals display and manipulate unique personal characteristics in order to identify/exploit market opportunities. This movement in entrepreneurship can be traced back to the early writers on entrepreneurship who draw attention to the enterprising person who engages for profit in the face of uncertain market conditions (Cantillon, 1931; Kirzner, 1973). From this perspective alert individuals energetically search their environment and take calculated risks in order to exploit market niches (Knight, 1921). As such, a fertile area of the entrepreneurship literature has centred on the person doing the entrepreneuring. Studies emphasize the creative, imaginative, risk-taking, achievement, confident and independent attributes of the entrepreneur (Chell, 1985; McClelland, 1987; Chell and Haworth, 1988; Chell et al 1991; Bolton and Thompson, 2000). This movement in entrepreneurship has provided a wide range of conceptual tools and methods for analysing the characteristics/individual traits of the lead entrepreneur and how these shape...
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