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New Movements in Entrepreneurship

Edited by Chris Steyaert and Daniel Hjorth

At last, a book that focuses on trendsetting thinking and research in the field of entrepreneurship and sets an agenda for current and future movements in the field.
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Chapter 14: Minority entrepreneurship: trends and explanations*

Patricia G. Greene, Nancy M. Carter and Paul Reynolds


Patricia G. Greene, Nancy M. Carter and Paul Reynolds INTRODUCTION The contribution of minority entrepreneurs to national economies around the world is widely recognized as important, but poorly understood. In the United States alone, minority-owned businesses are reportedly growing at a rate twoand-a-half times that of non-minority firms (Hopkins, 2001). The US Small Business Administration reports that in 1997 there were 3.25 million minorityowned businesses, generating revenues of $495 billion and employing approximately 4 million workers (US Small Business Administration, 1999). Similar impacts are present in other countries. Research on the impact of minority entrepreneurs has largely focused on attributes of minority communities and have included ethnic entrepreneurs in European cities (Van Delft, Gorter and Nijkamp, 1999), Japanese-Americans in California (Light, 1972; Bonacich and Modell, 1980), Chinese-Americans in New York (Zhou, 1992; 1995), Cubans in Florida (Portes and Bach, 1985), African-Americans throughout the US (Butler, 1991; Bates 1994; 1997), Koreans in Atlanta (Min, 1988), Pakistanis in Texas (Greene and Butler, 1996), Chinese in Singapore, Coptic Christians in Egypt, Ibo in Nigeria, Greeks in Egypt, and Arabs in China (Becker, 1940; Fallers, 1967; Waterbury, 1972; Hamilton, 1978). While these studies provide rich information about the creation and growth of minority-owned businesses, little information is available on whether the rate of new venture creation varies by specific populations. Variation in prevalence rates may suggest that some groups of nascent entrepreneurs face disadvantages in converting start-ups to operating businesses, diminishing wealth creation and ultimately overall contribution to national economies. Such variation appears to...

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