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Information Technology Policy and the Digital Divide

Lessons for Developing Countries

Edited by Mitsuhiro Kagami, Masatsugu Tsuji and Emanuele Giovannetti

The proliferation of new information technologies throughout the world has raised some important questions for policymakers as to how developing countries can benefit from their diffusion. This important volume compares the advantages and disadvantages of the IT revolution through detailed studies of a variety of developed and developing nations and regions: Argentina, Estonia, the EU, India, Japan, Korea, Mexico, South Africa, Thailand and the USA.
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Chapter 13: PKI Solutions for Trusted E-Commerce: Survey of the De Facto Standard Competition in PKI Industries

Atsuho Maeda


Atsuho Maeda 1. INTRODUCTION In this section, we focus on a new field of technology called ‘electronic certification’, which is expected to be an effective tool for ensuring the safety of commercial transactions (including international trade) in the midst of the increase in e-commerce on the open networks through the Internet. We will discuss the activities of the new enterprises related to the de facto standard at the industry level, and analyse their strategies for making inroads into Asian markets and their impact. We have been shifting our transaction basis from a norm of ‘face-to-face commercial transactions’, which involved only the trusted participants, into a business (including trade) format of ‘open electronic commerce’ conducted via the Internet. The question of how to ensure mutual trust between those involved in the transaction has become an important issue. Along with the growth of the Internet as the basis of business affairs, ‘the positive impact’ is that conventional business practices of exclusive associations have been shaken off, and business opportunities have expanded. On the other hand, ‘the negative impact’ is that it is also necessary to be aware of the unlimited increase in the danger of illegal access to the data for transactions conducted on the Internet, including ‘wiretapping,’ ‘tampering’ and ‘impersonation’. Transactions that are made on an open network are between multiple, unspecified users (individuals, corporations, government agencies), unlike the dealings within a business hierarchy upon guaranteed mutual trust. For these open network transactions, the issue of the reliability of the...

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