City to city relationships have not been looked upon favorably by many of those who are interested in urban economic development. This is because the standard sort of relationship that was instituted by many cities, and that got the most publicity, is of the ‘sister-city’ type. While sister-city relationships have their value, they have little to do with the economy of either city. An ethnic community in one city, typically North American, urges its mayor to establish a relationship with a major city in the nation that was the homeland of that community. New York City and San Juan or Chicago and Warsaw would be examples with the large Puerto Rican and Polish populations. The consequence of this tends to be limited to exchanges of cultural events, high school choir trips, and so forth. Rarely do they go beyond this to reach into economic institutions or economic development planning community of the rest of the North American city. In Europe most cities, of even the smallest population, have established one or more sister-city relationships with similar cities elsewhere in Europe. In addition to putting a symbolic end to a long history of conﬂict and war, these linkages are one effort toward the goal of creating a European identity or a sense of European-ness in the sensibilities of the residents of the cities that are involved. Recently the governments of Germany and France made explicit their interest in this initiative by establishing mandates in each country to increase instruction in...
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