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Women Entrepreneurs Across Racial Lines

Issues of Human Capital, Financial Capital and Network Structures

Andrea E. Smith-Hunter

Women entrepreneurs command an increasingly large presence at the international and national levels. A significant part of this impact is due to growing numbers of minority women becoming entrepreneurs. This volume provides some of the most comprehensive data to date on the topic of women entrepreneurs across racial lines. It offers a systematic and conceptual framework for understanding issues of network structures and human and financial capital, analyzed through a comparative analysis of minority and white women entrepreneurs.
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Chapter 10: Conclusion

Andrea E. Smith-Hunter


Introduction The rise of women entrepreneurs over the last few decades across countries with varying infrastructures, resources and support for their inception and continuance is nothing less than remarkable. Contributing greatly to this rise in the number of women entrepreneurs is the increase in minority women entrepreneurs (DeSimone, 2002; Hovey, 2001; Jackson, 2001; Kirby, 2001; McCrea, 2001; Laverdy, 1995, Neese, 2000; Ojito et al., 2001). Across the globe, women are starting businesses in record numbers in every field imaginable (Blanchflower and Meyer, 1994; Blau, 1987). Although the United States remains one of the most reported countries in studies on women entrepreneurs, womenowned businesses are on the rise everywhere (Chatterjee, 2001). Profound structural changes in various nations, as well as recognition by various facets of society of the advantageous position offered women by the entrepreneurial sector, has contributed to and boosted the importance of this employment sector for all – especially women who sometimes lack opportunities in the mainstream labor market (Furry and Radhakrishna, 1992; Highman, 1985; Himelstein and Anderson, 1997) or who were striving to combine their work and family life (Heck, 1992; Heck et al., 1992; Huff, 2003). This profound effect of the role of women entrepreneurship is attributable to the fact that women entrepreneurs are more likely than other sectors to operate small business enterprises (Carroll and Mosakowski, 1987; Clarke, 1999; Curran and Blackburn, 1991; Gundry et al., 2002). Recent reports on the increases in women business owners worldwide have been documented with surprising results. In Eastern Germany, women...

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