A Study of European Financial Integration and Monetary Policy Options
Chapter 5: External Arrangements: Exchange Rate Regimes and Capital Controls
The aims of this chapter are, first, to provide a general overview of exchange rate arrangements in the survey countries during the period 1979–2000; second, to classify the actual exchange rate regimes pursued during different periods in a few simple categories that will allow us to study the degree of financial integration and monetary autonomy in shifting institutional settings. It follows from the general conceptual framework described in Chapter 1 that the relationship between capital mobility and monetary autonomy is assumed to depend critically on the exchange rate regime. What we are looking for is a classification scheme that captures the main choice between fix and float, but also leaves room for some nuance – specifically, since many of the countries have been involved in the exchange rate cooperation within the European Monetary System (EMS), this should be reflected in the classification. Moreover, it is appropriate to let the imposition of administrative restrictions on capital account transactions (that is, capital controls) be an aspect of the formal institutional arrangements of exchange rate management (though conceptually, it might be more related to the idea of capital mobility). Based on these considerations, a framework for the classification of exchange rate regimes is depicted in the matrix in Figure 5.1. The matrix categorizes exchange rate arrangements according to two dimensions: what is the principal regime pursued for the exchange rate, and are restrictions on capital movements imposed to support the regime? The categorization of exchange regimes in the matrix is a simplification of...
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