Edited by Maureen McKelvey, Annika Rickne and Jens Laage-Hellman
14. Reﬂections and ways forward Hannah Kettler, Maureen McKelvey and Luigi Orsenigo 1. PARADOXES AND WAYS FORWARD Having addressed many aspects of the economic dynamics of knowledge, this chapter concludes the book by oﬀering some reﬂections and ways forward. The current section returns to the four paradoxes raised in Chapter 1, in order to reﬂect on the contributions of this book as well as to suggest many interesting avenues for further social science research. These topics are also relevant to the policies and strategies of governments, universities and ﬁrms. Section 2 highlights one such neglected avenue, namely biotechnology for the health care needs of developing countries. This is such an important topic for further research and recommendations, that a whole section is devoted to it. Section 3 concludes by discussing challenges to conceptual understanding that have been raised in studies of modern biotechnology, including this book. The ﬁrst paradox referred to controversies over the negative versus positive societal impacts. On the one hand, modern biotechnology is claimed to be as crucially important to many industrial sectors, to large as well as small ﬁrms, and as useful to address basic human needs. On the other hand, modern biotechnology is also the centre of controversies about the possible negative impacts related to modiﬁcation of nature, food safety, animal welfare, environmental protection and global exploitation of the poor. Chapters within this book have raised issues relevant to the government’s role in regulation, handling of risks, the eﬀects...
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