The Security–Business Nexus
Edited by Gabriele G.S. Suder
Chapter 2: The Legacy of September 11
Georg Witschel1 INTRODUCTION Terrorism did not begin on September 11, 2001. Both Europe and the United States, as well as other continents, have a long and sad history of terrorist attacks. The IRA in Northern Ireland, the ETA in Spain, the Brigate Rosse in Italy, the ‘17 November’ in Greece and the Rote Armee Fraktion in Germany are just a few examples of terrorist groups in Europe since 1950. Regarding the United States, we remember the terrible bombing in Oklahoma City in 1994 and even if we limit our brief historical survey geographically to New York’s ﬁnancial district we ﬁnd that not even the 1993 truck bombing of the World Trade Center was the ﬁrst terrorist event there: as far back as 16 September 1920, unknown perpetrators exploded a horse cart ﬁlled with explosives in the south of Manhattan, killing 40 and wounding many more. Yet we have to realize that September 11 has changed the world. Not that everything has changed, to the contrary: as UN Secretary-General Koﬁ Annan has pointed out, none of the issues that faced us on 10 September 2001 has become less urgent.2 But there is certainly a new quality to an old problem, which we have to face after that fatal date in September 2001. Terrorism has grown to an unprecedented extent and quality. In other words, September 11 has become a symbol and metaphor for the new threats looming on the horizon.3 Even without the use of weapons of mass destruction (and there...
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