Terrorism and the International Business Environment
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Terrorism and the International Business Environment

The Security–Business Nexus

Edited by Gabriele G.S. Suder

This book was born from the editor’s conviction that a wide set of contributors should provide the economic and corporate sectors with guidelines, developed from rigorous research and case studies, to analyse those adjustments made necessary through international terrorism, as known since September 11th 2001. It argues that corporate asset protection and accurate business risk assessment is vital to the longevity, and resilience of business.
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Chapter 2: The Legacy of September 11

Georg Witschel


Georg Witschel1 INTRODUCTION Terrorism did not begin on September 11, 2001. Both Europe and the United States, as well as other continents, have a long and sad history of terrorist attacks. The IRA in Northern Ireland, the ETA in Spain, the Brigate Rosse in Italy, the ‘17 November’ in Greece and the Rote Armee Fraktion in Germany are just a few examples of terrorist groups in Europe since 1950. Regarding the United States, we remember the terrible bombing in Oklahoma City in 1994 and even if we limit our brief historical survey geographically to New York’s financial district we find that not even the 1993 truck bombing of the World Trade Center was the first terrorist event there: as far back as 16 September 1920, unknown perpetrators exploded a horse cart filled with explosives in the south of Manhattan, killing 40 and wounding many more. Yet we have to realize that September 11 has changed the world. Not that everything has changed, to the contrary: as UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan has pointed out, none of the issues that faced us on 10 September 2001 has become less urgent.2 But there is certainly a new quality to an old problem, which we have to face after that fatal date in September 2001. Terrorism has grown to an unprecedented extent and quality. In other words, September 11 has become a symbol and metaphor for the new threats looming on the horizon.3 Even without the use of weapons of mass destruction (and there...

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