Regional Economies as Knowledge Laboratories
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Regional Economies as Knowledge Laboratories

Edited by Philip Cooke and Andrea Piccaluga

Today, the study of regions is central to academic analysis and policy deliberation on how to respond to the rise of the knowledge economy. Regional Economies as Knowledge Laboratories illustrates how newer types of regional analysis – utilising scientometrics, knowledge services measures and university networks, and concepts such as knowledge life cycles, experimental knowledge creation, and knowledge ethics – are leading to a perception that regional economies increasingly resemble knowledge laboratories.
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Chapter 3: The geography of research collaboration: theoretical considerations and stylized facts in biotechnology in Europe and the United States

Koen Frenken and Frank G. van Oort

Extract

3. The geography of research collaboration: theoretical considerations and stylized facts in biotechnology in Europe and the United States1 Koen Frenken and Frank G. van Oort 1. INTRODUCTION Whereas the geography of innovation has established itself as a central subject in economic geography (Feldman, 1999), geography is still a largely neglected subject in science studies including scientometrics. In particular, as collaboration in scientific knowledge production has become a central (policy) issue, it is surprising that few researchers have tried to understand the geography of research collaborations. Little is known about the role of proximity in scientific collaboration and how this affects the probability and nature of networking among research institutions. In this chapter we set out a number of theoretical considerations about the role of geography in science in general and in research collaboration in particular. To this end, we approach the subject by first discussing theoretical concepts advanced in the field of the geography of innovation, as this field of inquiry has recently produced a number of valuable theoretical insights in the relationships between geography, knowledge production and innovation. We then ask the question regarding to what extent these insights are helpful in theorizing the geography of research collaboration in science (and conclude that they are so only to a limited extent). Next, we discuss a number of stylized facts about research collaboration in Europe and the United States in the field of biotechnology, based on comparative empirical research on both continents. Special emphasis will be given...

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