Theory and Policy in the Context of EU Enlargement and Economic Transition
Edited by John W. Maxwell and Rafael Reuveny
Chapter 12: Reorganization of Environmental Policy in Russia: The Decade of Success and Failures in Implementation and Prospective Quests
* Vladimir Kotov and Elena Nikitina INTRODUCTION In the 1990s, the European countries of the former socialist bloc entered a new era of economic and political development that marked a transition to a market economy and democracy. Many of them adopted new environmental policies and formulated renewed commitment to sustainable development. Among the characteristics of their new environmental policy were institutional innovations and wider participatory patterns, including an increased role for business, locales, the public, and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in environmental policy implementation, expanded support by the West for environmental capacity building and the promotion of integration of environmental concerns into economic and democratic reforms. During the last decade, Russia, as one member of this group was actively involved in reorganization of its national and international environmental policies. Among the lessons learned from the previous decade was that, together with new broader opportunities for institutional innovations and for the introduction of new instruments for environmental management, the speciﬁcs of changes in economic, social and political systems as well as the instability of their major parameters imposed additional constraints on environmentally sustainable development. In many cases this resulted in failures in domestic and international implementation of new institutional responses. By the turn of the century, the gap between progressive environmental policy goals and the reality of putting them into action increased considerably. As a result, many modern and 265 266 Economic and environmental policies in transition economies ‘standard’ instruments of environmental management introduced during the recent decade produced ‘non-standard’ outcomes. Created...
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