Issues and Newness
Edited by Alain Fayolle
Chapter 5: Attitudes, Intentions and Behaviour: New Approaches to Evaluating Entrepreneurship Education
Alain Fayolle and Jean Michel Degeorge Introduction In recent years, entrepreneurship education has been developing steadily but unevenly in most countries. In the USA, for example, which has been a trailblazer and leader in the field, the past decade has been described as an important era, with a significant increase in student interest (Fiet, 2001a). The figures tend to support this statement. In 1971, only 16 colleges and universities in the USA offered entrepreneurship education programmes, while today there are more than 800. More American students are showing an interest in venture creation and independent employment, and are seriously considering entrepreneurship as a career option. They are therefore looking for and choosing entrepreneurship programmes. In 1996, for example, roughly 45 per cent1 of first-year students in Northwestern University’s management programme said they wanted to specialize in entrepreneurship (Fiet, 2001a). During the same period, entrepreneurship teachers began to meet regularly at conferences to discuss recent developments and compare their educational practices and methods (Fiet, 2001b). In France, entrepreneurship education has spread considerably over the past few years, and is currently in a structural phase (Fayolle, 2000a; 2003). Two recent initiatives clearly illustrate the process: first, the creation in 1998 of the ‘Academie de l’Entrepreneuriat’, a French association of entrepreneurship teachers and trainers from the secondary and higher education levels; and second, the creation in 2001 of the ‘Observatoire des Pratiques Pédagogiques en Entrepreneuriat’, a joint initiative involving three government departments whose primary mission is to identify entrepreneurship teaching and training...
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