Building and Managing the Faculty of the Future
Edited by Robert L. Clark and Jennifer Ma
3. The changing nature of faculty employment Ronald G. Ehrenberg and Liang Zhang 3.1 INTRODUCTION The last two decades of the twentieth century saw a signiﬁcant growth in the shares of faculty members in American colleges and universities that are part-time or are full-time without tenure-track status (Anderson 2002, Baldwin and Chronister 2001, Conley et al. 2002). Growing student enrollments faced by academic institutions during tight ﬁnancial times, and growing diﬀerentials between the salaries of part-time and full-time non-tenure-track faculty on the one hand, and tenured and tenure-track faculty on the other hand, are among the explanations given for these trends. However, surprisingly, there have been few econometric studies that seek to test whether these hypotheses are true.1 Our chapter begins by presenting information, broken down by form of control (public/private) and 1994 Carnegie category, on how the proportions of full-time faculty at four-year American colleges and universities that are tenured, on tenure tracks and are not on tenure tracks have changed since 1989, using information for a consistent sample of institutions from the annual IPEDS Faculty Salary Surveys and the biennial IPEDS Fall Staﬀ Surveys.2 The latter source also permits us to present similar estimates of the proportions of faculty that are employed parttime and the share of new full-time faculty appointments that are not on tenure tracks. To analyse the role that economic variables play in causing changes in faculty employment across categories, we conduct two types of econometric analyses. First, in section 3.3, we use...
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