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Recruitment, Retention and Retirement in Higher Education

Building and Managing the Faculty of the Future

Edited by Robert L. Clark and Jennifer Ma

This volume examines some of the most pressing employment and compensation issues confronting academic administrators. Contributors discuss topics such as: ageing of faculty, changing economic conditions and shifts in faculty employment patterns, rapid increases in health care costs and trends in retiree health insurance, and adoption of phased and early retirement programs.
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Chapter 3: The changing nature of faculty employment

Ronald G. Ehrenberg and Liang Zhang


Ronald G. Ehrenberg and Liang Zhang 3.1 INTRODUCTION The last two decades of the twentieth century saw a significant growth in the shares of faculty members in American colleges and universities that are part-time or are full-time without tenure-track status (Anderson 2002, Baldwin and Chronister 2001, Conley et al. 2002). Growing student enrollments faced by academic institutions during tight financial times, and growing differentials between the salaries of part-time and full-time non-tenure-track faculty on the one hand, and tenured and tenure-track faculty on the other hand, are among the explanations given for these trends. However, surprisingly, there have been few econometric studies that seek to test whether these hypotheses are true.1 Our chapter begins by presenting information, broken down by form of control (public/private) and 1994 Carnegie category, on how the proportions of full-time faculty at four-year American colleges and universities that are tenured, on tenure tracks and are not on tenure tracks have changed since 1989, using information for a consistent sample of institutions from the annual IPEDS Faculty Salary Surveys and the biennial IPEDS Fall Staff Surveys.2 The latter source also permits us to present similar estimates of the proportions of faculty that are employed parttime and the share of new full-time faculty appointments that are not on tenure tracks. To analyse the role that economic variables play in causing changes in faculty employment across categories, we conduct two types of econometric analyses. First, in section 3.3, we use panel data to estimate demand functions for...

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